English Grammar

Chapters

1. Auxiliaries

2. Tenses

3. Parts of speech

4. Kinds of sentences

5. Passive voice and active voice

6. Indirect speech or reported speech

7. Simple, compound and complex sentences

8. Conjuctions

9. Articles

10. Prepositions

11. Punctuations

Chapter 1

Auxiliary verbs (Helping verbs)

Auxiliary verbs are just helping verbs.They work with lexical verbs to indicate tenses and number.There are two types of auxiliaries in English language Primary and Modal.Primary auxiliaries do not take any meaning of their own and Modal auxiliaries indicate the speaker's mood.The primary difference between primary and modal auxiliaries is that primary auxiliaries can be used as lexical verbs too.But most of the Modals cannot stand alone.

Primary and Modal

Primary Auxiliaries

Modal Auxiliaries (Indicates Mood)

To do – does, do, did

To be – am, is, are

was, were,

[being, been]

To have – has, have, had

Will - would

Shall - should

Can - could

May - might

Must

Need

Dare

Ought

Used to

Explanation

……………………………………………

To do

Does – is present tense, Singular in form, when functioning as an auxiliary verb it does not have any meaning at all.

Do - Present Tense, plural in form.

When functioning as an auxiliary verb it does not have any meaning.

Did – Past tense. It can be used with both singular and plural subjects. When functioning as an auxiliary verb it does not have any meaning.

…………………………………………

To be

am – present tense, it is unique in the sense that it is used with the subject " I " only.(So singular plural question does not arise at all).When used as pure auxiliary there is no meaning too.

is – present tense, singular. When functioning as an auxiliary verb it does not have any meaning.

Are - present tense, Plural. When functioning as an auxiliary verb it does not have any meaning.

Was - past tense, singular. When functioning as an auxiliary verb it does not have any meaning.

Were - past tense, Plural. When functioning as an auxiliary verb it does not have any meaning.

............................................................

Being – the present participle (ing) form ofto be- no tense, no number, takes the meaning of be.

Been – the past participle form of to be- no tense, no number,takes the meaning of be.

..........................................................

To have

Has - present tense,singular.As an auxiliary no meaning.

Have - present tense,Plural.As an auxiliary no meaning.

Had - past tense,used with both singular and plural subjects.As an auxiliary no meaning.

Explanation

……………………………………………

Will - is used to indicate future tense

Eg. She will come tomorrow.

(Generally used with second and third person)

............................................................

Shall – is used to indicate future tense (Generally used with first person)

Eg. I shall go home tomorrow.

.........................................................

Can – is used to indicate ability

Eg. She can speak French.

.........................................................

May – is used to indicate possibility

Eg. He may come tomorrow.

........................................................

Must – is used to indicate an obligation

Eg. You must do that work.

........................................................

Need – is used to express a want

Eg. I need a pen

.......................................................

Dare – is used to express courage

Eg.You daren’t do that act.

.....................................................

Ought – is used to express obligation as well as duty

Eg. You ought to look after your parents in their old age.

........................................................

Used to – is used to indicate a past habitual action.

Eg. When I was young my grandfather used to tell me a lot of interesting stories.

Personal Pronouns (Nominative Case)


Singular

Plural

First Person

I

We

Second Person

You

You

Third Person

He, she, it

They

First person refers to the person who is talking
Second person refers to the person who is the target of the first person's talk.

Third person refers to all other things/people that do not belong to the first group and the second group.


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